Due to the complex nature of oil and gas operations and limited technical expertise by the government in such industries, industry standard setting and self-policing play a significant role in the governing process of oil spills. This has inevitably led to the network governance approach used to govern oil spills. The insufficient expertise and specialist technical knowledge in the public sector makes it difficult for the government to rely entirely on its personnel hence resulting in public-private partnership known as a type II partnership.] This style of new public management to oil spill governance is common in other aspects of environmental governance (e.g. climate change) in the U.S. and differs from the typical bureaucratic role of enforcement the federal government usually play.
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